EKSPLORASI EKSTRAK ETANOL BEBERAPA TUMBUHAN BERPOTENSI SEBAGAI ANTIKETOMBE

Ernanin Dyah Wijayanti, Endang Susilowati

Abstract


Abstrak

 

Ketombe merupakan salah satu masalah rambut yang disebabkan oleh fungi Malassezia furfur sehingga untuk pengendaliannya diperlukan agen antifungi. Beberapa tumbuhan telah digunakan secara empiris untuk terapi antiketombe antara lain: inggu (Ruta angustifolia), bambu tali (Gigantochloa apus), johar (Senna siamea), jintan hitam (Nigella sativa), apukat (Persea americana), dadap serep (Erythrina lithosprema), nagasari (Palaquium rostratum), pisang (Musa paradisiaca), sidaguri (Sida rhombifolia), tomat (Solanum lycopersicum), kethuk (Alocasia macrorrhiza) dan komak (Dolichos lablab). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan aktivitas antifungi ekstrak etanol tumbuhan uji dan menentukan nilai Kadar Hambat Minimum (KHM) dan Kadar Bunuh Minimumnya (KBM). Masing-masing simplisia tumbuhan uji diekstraksi dengan metode maserasi menggunakan pelarut etanol 70% selama 5 hari. Pengujian aktivitas antifungi terhadap Malassezia furfur menggunakan metode difusi sumuran, yang dilanjutkan dengan penentuan KHM dan KBM dengan metode dilusi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua ekstrak etanol tumbuhan uji memiliki aktivitas antifungi yang bervariasi terhadap Malassezia furfur. Aktivitas yang kuat ditunjukkan oleh ekstrak etanol kulit buah pisang, daun bambu tali, daun komak, biji jintan hitam dan daun inggu. Nilai KHM masing-masing ekstrak antara lain: kulit buah pisang, daun bambu tali dan daun komak (10%), biji jintan hitam (20%), daun inggu (30%), daun dadap serep dan daun johar (50%), daun tomat (60%), daun apukat dan daun nagasari (70%). Ekstrak etanol daun sidaguri dan daun kethuk tidak memiliki nilai KHM. Semua ekstrak etanol tumbuhan uji tidak memiliki nilai Kadar Bunuh Minimum (KBM).

 

Kata kunci: antifungi, ekstrak etanol, ketombe

 

Abstract

 

Dandruff is one of hair problem caused by Malassezia furfur, which can be controlled by antifungal agents. Empirically, some plants have been used as antidandruff treatment: rue (Ruta angustifolia), bamboo tali (Gigantochloa apus), blackwood cassia (Senna siamea), black cummin (Nigella sativa), avocado (Persea americana), Indian coral tree (Erythrina lithosprema), gutta percha (Palaquium rostratum), banana (Musa paradisiaca), cuban jute (Sida rhombifolia), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza) and lablab (Dolichos lablab). This research was aimed to observe antifungal activity, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of these 12 potential plants against Malassezia furfur. Each of plant simplisia was extracted by immersion in 70% ethanol  for 5 days. Antifungal activity assay against Malassezia furfur were conducted using agar well diffusion, followed by dilution method to determine MIC and MFC. The results showed that all of plant ethanolic extract have various antifungal activity against Malassezia furfur. Strong activity showed by banana peels extract, bamboo tali leaves extract, lablab leaves extract, black cumin seeds extract and rue leaves extract. MIC values obtained were 10 % for banana peels extract, bamboo tali and lablab leaves extract,  20% for black cumin seeds extract, 30% for rue leaves extract, 50% for Indian coral and blackwood cassia leaves extract, 60% for tomato leaves extract, 70% for avocado and gutta percha leaves extract. Whereas cuban jute and taro leaves extract did not show MIC values. All of plant ethanolic extracts did not show MFC values.

 

Key words: antifungal, dandruff, ethanolic extract


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