Dwi Hartanti



Tanaman obat memiliki peranan penting dalam pengobatan tradisional, dan masih digunakan di berbagai belahan dunia. Dengan demikian, tanaman obat dan produk herbal harus aman bagi pasien (atau konsumen). Review ini membahas tentang kontaminan biologis (mikroba dan organisme lain), kontaminan kimia (mikotoksin, logam dan logam berat, dan residu pestisida), cemaran radioaktif dan pemalsuan yang seringkali terdeteksi pada tanaman obat dan produk herbal.

Kata kunci: keamanan produk herbal, kontaminan biologis, kontaminan kimia, kontaminan radioaktif, pemalsuan produk herbal.


Medicinal plants are important part of traditional medicine, and still widely used as therapy throughout the world. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues), radioactive and adulteration as common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

Key words: herbal safety, biological contaminant, chemical contaminant, radioactive contaminant, adulteration.


Barthwal, J., Nair, S., Kakkar, P. 2008. Heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants collected from environmentally different sites. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 21:319-324.

Brown, J.C., Jiang, X. 2008. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistence bacteria in herbal products. J.Food Prot., 71(7): 1486-1490.

Bugno, A., Almodovar, A.A.B., Pereira, T.C., Pinto, T.J.A., Sabino, M. 2006. Occurence of toxigenic fungi in herbal drugs. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 37:47-51.

Chiang, Y.C., Huang, G.J., Ho, Y.L., Hsieh, P.C., Chung, H.P., Chou, F.I., Chang, Y.S. 2011. Influence of gamma irradiation on microbial load and antioxidative characteristics of Polygoni Multiflori Radix. Process Biochemistry, 46(3):777-782.

Dogheim, S.M., Ashraf, E.M.M., Alla, S.A.G., Khorsyid, M.A., Fahmy, S.M., 2004. Pesticides and heavy metals levels in Egyptian leafy vegetables and some aromatic medicinal plants. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment, 21(4):323-330.

Doshi, H.K., Thambiah, J., Chun, C.L., Nga, M.E., Tambyah, P.A. 2009. Necrotising fasciitis caused by adulterated traditional Asian medicine: a case report. Journal of Orthophaedic Surgery. 17(2):223-226.

Dubey, N.K., Kumar, A., Singh, P., Shukla, R. 2008. Microbial contamination of raw materials: A major reason for the decline of India’s share in the global herbal market. Current Science, 95(6):717-718.

du Plessis-Stoman, D., Downing, T.G., van de Venter, M., Govender, S. 2009. Traditional herbal medicines: potential degradation of sterols and sterolins by microbial contaminations. South African Journal of Science, 105:147-150.

The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EmeA). 2001. Note for guidance on limitations to the use of ethylene oxide in the manufacture of medicinal products. EmeA. London.

European Medicines Agency (EmeA). 2006. Guideline on spesifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for herbal substances, herbal preparation, and herbal medicinal products/traditional herbal medicinal products. EMeA. London.

Fuat Abd Razak, M., Aidoo, K.E., Candlish, A.G.G. 2009. Mixed herbs drugs: inhibitory effect on growth of the endogenous mycoflora and aflatoxin production. Mycopathologia. 167(5):273-286.

Ernst, E. 2002. Adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines with synthetic drugs: a systematic review. Journal of Internal Medicine. 252:107-113.

Health Science Authority (HSA). 2002. HSA Issues on a jamu product “serbuk jarem (encok)” found adulterated with phenylbutazone. Press Release.

Jeveremovic, M., Lazarevic, N., Pavlovic, S., Orlic, M. 2011. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of medicinal herbs and effective dose from ingestion of 137Cs and natural radionuclides in herbal tea products from Serbian market. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 47(1):87-92.

Kineman, B., Nahikin-Nelms, M.L., Frazier, C.L. 2002. A pilot investigation on microbial contamination of herbal suplements: is there a risk for immunocompromized population?. HIV Nutrition Update. 7(1):1-9.

Kosalec, I., Cvec, J., Tomic, S. 2009. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. Arg Hig Rada Toksikol. 60:485-501.

Ku, Y.R., Liu, Y.C., Lin, J.H. 2001. Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of prednisone adulterated in a foreign herbal medicine. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 9(3):150-152.

Menghini, A., Borio, R., Chiocchini, S., Scampuli, P. 1998. Radioactivity from 137Cs in plant drugs and their preparations after Chernobyl. Pharmacological Research communications. 20(5):155-159.

Mitra, S.K., Kannan, R. 2007. A Note on unintentional adulterations in ayurvedic herbs. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 11:11-15.

Ozbey, A., Uygun, U., 2007. Behaviour of some organophosphorus pesticide residues in thyme and stinging nettle tea during infusion process. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 42(3):380-383.

Rai, V., Kakkar, P., Singh, J., Misra, C., Kumar, S., Mehrotra, S., 2008. Toxic metals and organochlorine pesticides residue in single herbal drugs used in important ayurvedic formulation – ‘Dashmoola’. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 143(1-3):273-277.

Ranwala, N.K.D., Rashing, J.W. 2005. Influence of treatments with heat, chlorine dioxide, or ethylene oxide on microbiological load and parthenolide content in feverfew leaves. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants. 15(3):227-240.

Romagnoli, B., Menna, V., Gruppioni, N., Bergamini, C. 2007. Aflatoxins in spices, aromatic herbs, herb-teas and medicinal plants marketed in Italy. Food Control. 18(6):697-701.

Saeed, M., Muhammad, N., Khan, H., Khan, S.A. 2010. Analysis of toxic heavy metals in branded pakistani herbal products. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 32(4):471-475.

Savaliya, A.A., Shah, R.P., Prasad, B., Singh, S. 2010. Screening of Indian aphrodisiac ayurvedic/herbal healthcare products for adulteration with sildenafil, tadalafil and/or vardenafil using LC/PDA and extracted ion LC–MS/TOF. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 52(3):406-409.

Singh, P., Srivastava, B., Kumar, A., Dubey, N.K., 2008. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant. Microbial Ecology. 56(3):555-560.

Steenkamp, V., Steward, M.J., Chimuka, L., Cukrowska, E. 2005. Uranium concentrations in South African herbal remedies. Health Physic. 89(6):679-683.

Tafteng, Y.M., Olama, E.H., Ojo, T.O. 2010. Microbial burden of some herbal antimalarials marketed at Elele, River State. Afr. J. Trad. CAM. 7(2):149-152.

World Health organization (WHO). 2007. WHO guidelines for assessing quality of herbal medicine with reference in contaminants and residues. WHO. Geneva.

Xue, J., Hao, L., Peng, F., 2008. Residues of 18 organochlorine pesticides in 30 traditional Chinese medicines. Chemosphere. 71(6):1051-1055.

Yap, Y.K., Mohd Fitri, M.R., Mazyhar, Y., Tan, S.C. 2010. Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the accumulation of heavy metals in different parts of Centella asiatica: a laboratory study. Sains Malaysiana. 39(3):347-352.

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DOI: 10.30595/pji.v9i3.741

ISSN: 2579-910X