EFEK HEPATOPROTEKTIF EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SENDOK (Plantago major L) PADA TIKUS MODEL HEPATOTOKSIK : TINJAUAN ANATOMI DAN HISTOPATOLOGI

Eman Sutrisna, Annisa A Fitriani, Setiawati Setiawati, Islimsyaf A Salim, Ani M Maskoen

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Hepar merupakan organ yang berisiko mengalami kerusakan akibat berbagai obat maupun bahan kimia lingkungan yang masuk ke dalam tubuh dan dapat menimbulkan gangguan metabolisme dan homeostasis sistemik. Daun sendok (Plantago major L.) mengandung senyawa aktif yang memiliki efek antiinflamasi, antiapoptosis, antiproliferatif, antioksidan dan hepatoprotektif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efek pemberian ekstrak etanol daun sendok terhadap penurunan volume, massa dan perbaikan gambaran histopatologi hepar tikus Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) model hepatotoksik. Penelitian berupa eksperimental dengan desain post test only with control group design. Sebanyak 21 ekor tikus wistar (Rattus norvegicus) dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok perlakuan. Kelompok kontrol sehat (K0) diberi akuades, kelompok kontrol negatif (K1) diberi omeprazol dosis 10 mg/200 g BB tikus dan ciprofibrat 16 mg/200 gBB tikus/hari, dan kelompok intervensi (K2) diberi omeprazol dosis 10 mg/200 g BB tikus, ciprofibrat 16 mg/200 g BB tikus/hari, dan ekstrak etanol daun sendok 100 mg/200 g BB tikus. Derajat kerusakan hepar ditentukan menggunakan skor Manja Roenigk. Semua hewan coba dikorbankan dibawah pengaruh anestesi setelah perlakuan selama 2 bulan. Organ liver hewan coba diambil untuk pemeriksaan massa, volume dan histopatologi liver. Data massa dan volume hepar dianalisis secara statistika dengan Uji Kruskal- Wallis, dilanjutkan uji beda Mann-Whitney serta uji one way ANOVA untuk menganalisis perbedaan gambaran histopatologi hepar, dilanjutkan uji pos hoc. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna rerata massa hepar, volume dan skor Manja roenigk antar kelompok perlakuan (nilai p=0,000; 0,001; 0,000; α<0,05). Rerata massa hepar K0= 9,37±0,63; K1=18,16±1,72 dan K2=9,91±3,86. Rerata volume hepar K0=9,71±0,49; K1=16,71±1,90, dan K2=11,57±3,86. Rerata skor Manja Roenigk K0=108,42±5,31; K1=362,29 ±19,31, dan K2=214,57±215,00. Pemberian ekstrak etanol daun sendok menurunkan massa dan volume hepar serta memperbaiki gambaran histopatologi hepar tikus model hepatotoksik secara bermakna.

Kata kunci: ekstrak etanol daun sendok, hepatoprotektif, histopatologi.


ABSTRACT

Liver is the organ which has risk of injury cause by various drugs or chemical substance in the body. It can cause disturbance on metabolize and systemic homeostasis. Plantago major L. has a lot of active subtances, that show antiinflammatory, antiapoptosis, anti proliferative, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effect. This study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Plantago major L. on reduction of liver volume, liver mass and improvement of histopathologic appearances in hepatotoxic rat (Rattus norvegicus) model. By experimental study and post test only with control group design, 21 of rats was divided in to 3 groups. Group K0 as a healthy control group that be given aqudest per oral. Group K1 as a negative control was given omeprazole 10 mg/200 g BW rat and ciprofibrat dose 16 mg/200 g BW rat/day per oral. Group K2 was given omeprazole 10 mg/200 g BW rat and ciprofibrat dose 16 mg/200 g BW rat/day and Plantago major L. 100 mg/200 g BW rat/day per oral. They were killed after 2 month intervention under anesthetic. Samples from each liver were collected for volume, mass, and histopathology assessment. Degree of liver destruction was determined by using Manja Roenigk Score. The difference of histopathology appearance between groups of the study were tested by statistic analysis One Way Anova and Post Hoc Tukey and also Kruskal-Wallis for mass and volume followed by Pos Hoc test Mann-Whitney. There were significantly difference of liver mass, volume, and Manja Roenigk score between groups (p-value=0.000; 0.001; 0.000; α<0.05). The average of liver mass are K0= 9.37±0.63; K1=18.16±1.72 and K2=9.91±3.86. The average of liver volume are K0=9.71±0.49; K1=16.71±1.90 dan K2=11.57±3.86. The average of Manja Roenigk score are K0=108.42±5.31; K1=362.29 ±19.31 and K2=214.57±215.00. This study can be concluded that administration of ethanol extract of Plantago major L. decrease liver mass, volume, and improved liver histopathological appearance significantly of hepatotoxic rat model.

Key words: extract of Plantago major L., hepatoprotective, histopathology.

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DOI: 10.30595/pji.v10i1.771

ISSN: 2579-910X