AKTIVITAS ANTIMIKROBA EKSTRAK BIJI Nigella sativa TERHADAP VIABILITAS BAKTERI PROBIOTIK SECARA IN VITRO DAN IN VIVO

Ahmad Shobrun Jamil, Buhari Adi, Bayu Prasaja, Astri Ariani, Zulkipli Hardi

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Biji Nigella sativa telah banyak diketahui khasiat farmakologisnya. Salah satu aktivitas farmakologis senyawa N. sativa adalah sebagai antimikroba. Untuk itu penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan tujuan mengetahui aktivitas antimikroba N. sativa terhadap flora normal saluran pencernakan manusia agar diketahui dosis terapi yang tepat dan tidak membahayakan keseimbangan flora normal saluran pencernakan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan secara in vitro dan in vivo. Pengujian in vitro aktivitas antimikroba ekstrak biji N. sativa terhadap strain bakteri probiotik usus dilakukan dengan uji difusi cakram dengan perlakuan pemberian ekstrak N. sativa fraksi n-heksan, etil asetat dan etanol konsentrasi 500 mg/ml; 250 mg/ml; 125 mg/ml; 62,5 mg/ml; 31,25 mg/ml; 15,625 mg/ml. Pengujian secara in vivo dilakukan dengan mencit dengan pemberian kombinasi antibiotik sefadroxil 1,3mg/20g BB mencit dan adjuvan berupa ekstrak N. sativa 1,3mg/20g BB, 2,6 mg/20g BB, dan 3,9mg/20g BB mencit. Hasil pengujian in vitro ekstrak biji N. sativa fraksi n-heksan memiliki potensi antimikroba tertinggi disusul kemudian fraksi etil asetat dan etanol. Daya antimikroba ekstrak biji N. sativa fraksi n-heksan muncul pada konsentrasi 15,63 mg/ml dan semakin kuat pada konsentrasi yang lebih tinggi. Secara in vivo didapatkan hasil dosis adjuvant ekstrak biji N. sativa 3,9 mg/20g BB memunculkan aktivitas antimikroba pada bakteri probiotik sebagai bagian flora normal di saluran cerna mencit.

Kata kunci : N. sativa, antimikroba, bakteri probiotik, in vivo, in vitro

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa has a lot of pharmacological activities. One of those is the broad range antimicrobial activity. The aims of this research are to find out the antimicrobial activity against probiotic bacteria as normal flora in gastrointestinal track (GIT), in order to determine the apropriate dose which not harm for GIT normal flora. This research was conducted by in vitro and invivo assay. In vitro assay for antimicrobial acitivity using disc diffusion method with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol fraction of N. sativa extract. The concentration of each fraction were varied into 500 mg/ml; 250 mg/ml; 125 mg/ml; 62.5 mg/ml, 31.25 mg/ml, 15.625 mg/ml, respectively. In vivo assay using mice (Mus musculus) to analyze the difference of the probiotic bacteria viability in the GIT of treated mice and in that of control mice. N. sativa extract at dose of 1.3 mg/20gBW, 2.6 mg/20gBW, and 3.9 mg/20gBW were used as adjuvant with sefadroxil 1,3 mg/20 g BB. The result showed that the n-hexane extract possessing the highest potency as antimicrobial against probiotic bacteria, wich the minimum inhibitory concentration was 15,625 mg/ml. The in vivo assay shows that the dose of 1.3 mg/20gBW of mice has antimicrobial activity and so do the higher doses.

Key words: antimicrobial, probiotic bacteria, N. sativa, in vivo, in vitro

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DOI: 10.30595/pji.v11i2.839

ISSN: 2579-910X