Design and Development of Lifelong Skills-Enhancement e-Programmes Using Monitoring/Evaluation Tools: Exemplars with Policy Recommendations

Khar Thoe Ng, Jeyaletchumi Muthiah, Shah Assanarkutty Jahan Assanarkutty, Deva Nanthini Sinniah, Nelson Cyril, Nanthini Jayaram, Kamalambal Durairaj, Sivaranjini Sinniah


Developing ‘Future Ready’ learners in preparation of Industrial Revolution (IR) through implementation of lifelong skills-enhancement programmes collaborating with various sectors is the recent global governmental aspiration. In response to call for quality technology-enhanced ‘Science, Technology, Reading, Engineering, Arts, Mathematics’ (STREAM) education, SEAMEO RECSAM initiated the ‘Learning Science and Mathematics Together’ [LeSMaT (Borderless)] project-based programme under the Golden SEAMEO Basic Education and Student Networking involving blended-mode lifelong education. This article reports SEAMEO Inter-Centre Collaboration (ICC) Education 4.0 project initiative as an offshoot programme of LeSMaT involving Design and Development Research (DDR) in developing lifelong skills-enhancement e-programmes integrating STREAM education with evidence-based output under sub-themes identified from LeSMaT(Borderless) involving ‘Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation’ (ADDIE) instructional model. ‘Analysis’ of these sub-themes were made to develop criteria as guiding focus for project teams to design technology-enhanced learning (TEL) output that could showcase the knowledge/skills required during IR4.0. Literature research was also made on existing e-programmes fulfilling SEAMEO’s priorities. During ‘Design and Development’ phases, e-surveys were developed as monitoring/evaluation tools for tracking of skills-enhancement e-programmes in line with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).  During ‘Implementation/Evaluation’ phases, qualitative/quantitative data collection/analysis methods were implemented involving case study and validation of e-survey entitled ‘Motivation towards STREAM education’ (MoToS). The qualitative analysis integrating ‘type 4’ multiple-case design includes analysing output illustrating curriculum innovation through transdisciplinary studies reflecting Education 4.0 and SDGs whereas quantitative method involved Rasch model to validate MoToS  to monitor/evaluate participants’ engagement  in 1st Regional Workshop on SEAMEO-ICC Education 4.0. The findings using Rasch analysis in the ‘Evaluation’ phase revealed that MoToS is reliable with measure of CA 0.98 internal consistency and ‘feeling stressed on STREAM’ is the most difficult item.  After the e-course series 2020-2022, participants' output was examined using ‘Cross-Case Analysis’ (CCA), ‘Within/Exemplary-Case Analysis’ (WCA/ECA). The e-course series produced evidence-based SDG-related outputs with exemplars integrating SEAMEO Priority Areas No.7 and No.5. Policy recommendations and suggestions for future studies related to Education 4.0 are discussed including developing innovative programmes to improve transdisciplinary quality education


lifelong skills-enhanced e-programmes; design and development research (DDR); monitoring/evaluation tools; policy recommendations; transdisciplinary quality education


[1] UN (n.d.). Sustainable Development Goals. United Nations (UN).

[2] SDG Labs (2017). Collaborative thinking for greener cities. Madrid, Spain.

[3] SEAMEO (2018). Action Agenda for the SEAMEO 7 Priority Areas. Bangkok, Thailand: SEAMEO Secretariat. images/stories/Publications/Centers_Pub/ SEAMEO_Education_agenda/Action Agenda for the SEAMEO 7 Priority Areas_FINAL.pdf

[4] Richey, R.C. & Klein, J.D. (2014). Design and development research: Methods, strategies and issues. New York: Routledge.

[5] Pang, Y.J., Tay, C.C., Sharifah, S.S.A., & Ng, K.T. (2020). Developing robotics competition-based learning module: A design and development research (DDR) approach. Solid State Technology, Volume 63, Issue 1s, pp. 849-859.

[6] Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. 3rd ed. Sage Publications, Inc.

[7] Yin, R.K. (2004). Case study methods (Rev..ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

[8] Phillips, J.A. (2007). HMEF 5014: Education research methodology. UNITEM Sdn. Bhd.

[9] Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 543-576.

[10] Yin, R.K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods (5th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Design_and_Methods_5th_ed_Thousand_Oaks_CA_Sage_282_pages

[11] Ng, K.T. (2007). Integration of human values in HVWSHE curriculum incorporating teaching strategies/approaches and assessment/evaluation techniques. In Pannen, P., Ng, K.T., Ikhsan, J., Mustafa, D., & Herawati (Eds.). (2007). SEAMEO resource package: Human Values-based Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Education (HVWSHE). SEAMEO SEAMOLEC and UN-HABITAT.

[12] Tan, K.A., Leong, C.K. & Ng, K.T. (2007). Enhancing mathematics processes and thinking skills in values-based water education. Presentation compiled in refereed proceedings of the 3rd CoSMEd 2009. Penang, Malaysia: SEAMEO RECSAM.

[13] Toh, L., Yeap, C.H., Ng, K.T., & Isma, F. (2007). Cross-curricular teaching incorporating human values: A collaborative research by reflective practitioners. Learning Science and Mathematics (LSM) Online Journal. 2, 9-31.

[14] Ng, K.T. (2018). Development of transdisciplinary models to manage knowledge, skills and motivation processes integrating technology with reflective practices. [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Recent Developments in Science, Technology, Humanities and Management, ICRDSTHM 2017.

[15] Narulita, S., Perdana, A.T.W., Nur F., A., Darmakusuma, M.D., Indarjani & Ng, K.T. (2018). Motivating secondary science learning through 3D interactive technology: From theory to practice using Augmented Reality. Learning Science and Mathematics (LSM) online journal, Issue 13, December 2018. pp. 38-45. images/docs/2018/(3)Sari%20Narulita%20p38-45_final.pdf

[16] Ng, K.T., Kim, P.L., Lay, Y.F., Pang, Y.J., Ong, E.T. & Anggoro, S. (2021). Enhancing essential skills in basic education for sustainable future: Case analysis with exemplars related to local wisdom. Anggoro, S., et al. (Eds.)(2021). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Social Sciences, ICONESS 2021 on 19 July, 2021 at Purwokerto, Central Java, Indonesia. and

[17] MOE (2012). Blueprint 2013-2025. Preliminary report-executive summary. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ministry of Education (MOE) Malaysia.

[18] SEAMEO (2018). Action Agenda for the SEAMEO 7 Priority Areas. Bangkok, Thailand: SEAMEO Secretariat. SEAMEO_Education_agenda/Action Agenda for the SEAMEO 7 Priority Areas_FINAL.pdf

[19] Nyunt, K.A.K., Ng, K.T., Baharulnizam, B., & Chockalingam, A. (2014). Development of a hybrid system to enhance borderless learning: Challenges and Opportunities for the underserved. Hong Kong.

[20] Alizah, (2019). Alizah, A., Lee, T.L., Ng, K.T., Noraini, I. & Abu Bakar, S. (2019). Transforming public libraries into digital knowledge dissemination centre in supporting lifelong blended learning programmes for rural youths. Acta Informatica Malaysia (AIM). Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp. 16-20. Zibeline International Publishing.

[21] Ng, K.T. (2017). Development of transdisciplinary models to manage knowledge, skills and innovation processes integrating technology with reflective practices (Editor’s choice). International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA)(0975-8887) Scholarly peer-reviewed research publishing journal No.2, pp. 1-9. Retrieved January 1, 2020 from and https:/ /

[22] Ng, K.T, Muthiah, J., Mohd. Sabri, W.N.A. & Durairaj, K. (Eds.).(2023). SEAMEO Inter-Centre Collaboration (ICC) Project on Education 4.0: Issues, challenges and future direction towards SEAMEO priorities and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A research report. Penang, Malaysia: SEAMEO RECSAM for SEAMEO Secretariat, Bangkok, Thailand..

[23] Ng, K.T, Muthiah, J., Ong, E.T., Anggoro, S., Toh, T.L., Chin, C.K., Chia, P.L., Pang, Y.J., Kumar, R. & Fukui, M. (Eds.).(2023). SEAMEO LeSMaT(Borderless): A Project Report including theme-based output from its offshoot programmes [‘Learning Transdisciplinary Science integrating Mathematics, Arts/language/ culture/reading, Engineering/Environmental Education/ Entrepreneurship/Economics and Technology’ (LearnT-SMArET) with input from SEAMEO LeSMaT-ICC-4.0. Penang, Malaysia: SEAMEO RECSAM. In Press.

[24] Johnson, R.B. & Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (Summer, 2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.

[25] Miyadera, R . (2017). Creative mathematics education supported by digital tools that enhance STEM literacy and STEM related careers. Learning Science and Mathematics (LSM). (12), 13-19. sub_LSMJournal/images/docs/2017/(2)Ryohei%20Miyadera%20pg13-19_final.pdf

[26] Chin, C.K., Hairiah, M., Miyadera, R., Ng, K.T., Ch’ng, Y.S. & Promsing, N. (2019). Promoting Education for Sustainable Development in teacher education integrating blended learning and digital tools: An evaluation with exemplary cases. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education (EJMSTE). 15(1). &,6606

[27] Cher, Z.J. & Toh, T.L. (2022). A framework for designing comics-based Mathematics Instructional Materials. Learning Science and Mathematics (LSM) Online Journal. 49-64.

[28] Ng, C.S., Ng, C.K., Sin, Y.H., Natasha, A., Quah S.E., Ng, A.J.H. & Ng, C.S (2022). Promoting eco-tourism in cultural heritage site.

[29] Ng, K.T. (2021). Developing technology-enhanced essential skills beyond STEM education: From local wisdom to global sharing. Keynote address during the European Alliance for Innovation-International Conference on Social Science (EAI-ICONESS 2021). Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Central Java, Indonesia.

[30] Tan, Y.X., Foo, L.Z.H., Ngoh, X.W., Ho, J.S., Tan, Z.B., Pang, Y.J., Teh, Y.Q., Ng, K.T., & Chin, C.K. (2022). Using Minecraft as digital tool to promote healthy lifestyle in sustainable future city. and

[31] Anggoro, S., Indriastuti, A.D.W, Ilman, M.Z., Nabiha, S.A., Wishi, N.S., Firdaus, M.R. & Ramadhan, N.E.K. (2022a). Integrating local wisdom on elementary school curriculum. https://

[32] Anggoro, S., Supriati, I.P., Naraya, A.J., Sadityo, A.M., Nabil, E.Z. & Wahyudi, S.R.P. (2022b). R&D of ‘Terasyik’ teaching materials based on Augmented Reality science materials of plants, the beginning and end of life on earth. In Ng, K.T. & Mohd. Sabri, W.N.A. (Eds.). SEAMEO ICC Project on ‘Education 4.0: Issues, Challenges and Future Direction towards SEAMEO Priorities and SDGs. SEAMEO RECSAM.

[33] Linacre, J. M. (2012). Many-Facet Rasch Measurement: Facets Tutorial.

[34] Zhou, X. & Mustafa, M. (Eds). (2019). Sustainable Development Goals interlinkages and network analysis: A practical tool for DG integration and policy coherence. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).

[35] Goh, B.L. (2019, May 7). Non-compliance and pollution. The Sun, 9.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.30595/dinamika.v15i2.19591

Copyright (c) 2023 Khar Thoe Ng, Jeyaletchumi Muthiah, Shah Assanarkutty Jahan Assanarkutty, Deva Nanthini Sinniah, Nelson Cyril, Nanthini Jayaram, Kamalambal Durairaj, Sivaranjini Sinniah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2655-870X